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WALLER COUNTY. Waller County (K-19) is in the lower coastal plain of southeast Texas. The center of the county lies at 29°11' north latitude and 96° 01' west longitude. Hempstead, the county's seat of government and largest city, is twenty-five miles northwest of Houston. The county covers 514 square miles of land, from the rolling timbered area in the northern part of the county to the coastal prairie in the south, where marsh and bunch grasses grow. Elevations range between 100 and 300 feet above sea level. Soil types vary from the fertile alluvial soil in the Brazos river bottoms to the sandy loam soil in the prairie region and the black waxy soils in the small southern area of the county. The Brazos River defines the county's western boundary and is the area's most important stream, but the county is also crossed by a number of creeks, including Clear, Spring, Walnut, Brushy, Pond, Birch, Mound, Besser, Iron, and Cedar creeks; Hubbard Springs provides mineral waters. Small lakes in the area include Garrett Lake, Mound Lake, and Hannay Lake. Pine trees predominate in northeastern Waller County, while pecan trees are found on the Brazos river bottom, and live oak, sycamore, ash, elm, cottonwood, walnut trees, and wild fruits and berries are found elsewhere. Temperatures range from an average low of 41° F in January to an average high of 95° in July. The average annual precipitation is forty-two inches, and the average growing season lasts 288 days. The economy of Waller County revolves primarily around farming, cattle, and forest products. Mineral resources include oil and gas, salt domes, shell, gypsum, sulphur, sand, gravel, and brick clay. Waller County is served by U.S. Highway 290, State Highway 6, and by three airports.
Before settlement large herds of mustangsqv and wild cattle roamed through what is now Waller County; deer and prairie chickens were also abundant. The Bidai Indians lived a migratory life in the area, where they engaged in hunting and fishing. By the time of Anglo occupation, this group had been reduced to only about 100 members. European explorers apparently did not enter the area before the 1800s. The area that is now Waller County was originally part of the Municipality of Washington under Mexican rule, then became part of Washington County and then Austin County. The area began to be settled in the early 1820s as part of Stephen F. Austin'sqv original colony. In 1821 Jared Groceqv moved from Alabama with 100 slaves and established Bernardo Plantation,qv four miles from the site of present Hempstead. Groce grew a crop of cotton in 1822 (perhaps the first in Texas), and in 1825 he constructed the first cotton gin in Texas. A blacksmith shop and commissary were also established at Bernardo, and the plantation became the nucleus of settlement in the area. In April 1836, during the Texas Revolution,qv Sam Houston'sqv army briefly camped at the plantation. Other early settlers on the east bank of the Brazos were Isaac M. Pennington,qv first schoolteacher in Austin's colony, and two free blacks, Lewis B. Jones and Samuel Hardin. The southern part of what became Waller County developed more slowly than the northern sections did. James Pattison established a plantation close to the site of present-day Pattison, and Edwin Wallerqv settled near the site of the present community of Clemons sometime after 1840. Most settlers in the area came from the southern United States. By 1845 the east bank of the Brazos had become a prosperous, cotton-exporting plantation area; about 200 whites owned more than 1,000 slaves. Jared Groce's son, Leonard W. Groce,qv acquired some of his father's land in 1854 and built Liendo Plantation,qv which became the area's social center. During these years most of the area's cotton crop was taken to Houston for marketing. Planters had to rely on inadequate steamboat and poor road transportation until the late 1850s, but development of the area was accelerated in 1858, when the Houston and Texas Central Railway built into the county. Hempstead, a new town located at the railroad's terminus in the northwestern part of the county, was incorporated in November 1858 and soon became a major trade center for the area, as cotton and other agricultural exports were increasingly shipped down the railroad to the coast. Hempstead's importance as a trade center grew in 1861, when the Washington County Rail Road connected the town to Brenham. The formation of Hempstead caused a shift in the county's population, as people moved away from the northern village of Rock Island, which earlier had been the only community in the region.
During the Civil Warqv Confederate camps Carter, Groce, and Hebert were established near Hempstead; the town became a Confederate supply and manufacturing center, and a Confederate military hospital was established there. Camp Groce was one of two locations holding Union prisoners of war. Support was strong for the Confederacy in the area. Dr. Richard R. Peebles,qv a prominent local citizen who helped to found Hempstead, was imprisoned and exiled by Confederate authorities for speaking and writing against the war. Union soldiers marched into Hempstead in the summer of 1865, and about 4,000 troops commanded by George Armstrong Custerqv camped near Hempstead from August to October. An agency of the Freedmen's Bureauqv was established at Hempstead in 1866, and in 1867 two companies of federal troops were assigned there. The emancipation of the area's slaves disrupted the local economy and led to the breakup of many of the large plantations; cotton production plunged, and as late as 1870 remained significantly below prewar levels. (The Liendo Plantation was purchased by Edmund Montgomery and his wife, sculptor Elisabet Ney,qqv in 1873). Though according to some reports the white citizens of Hempstead established a good relationship with the occupying soldiers, the city's peace was disturbed by a race riot in 1868. The area's majority black population became active in local politics during Reconstruction,qv and a number of blacks were elected to county and state offices. After Waller County was established in 1873, a majority of the county's voters supported the Republican candidates in every presidential election from 1872 to 1896.
Settlers on the east bank of the Brazos had attempted to obtain legislative approval to separate from Austin County as early as the 1850s. As a result of political maneuvering during Reconstruction, the state legislature established Waller County in 1873 from parts of Austin and Grimes counties; Hempstead was designated the county's seat of government. The construction of new rail links and new sources of livelihood soon encouraged the growth of old communities and new towns. Pattison grew rapidly after the Texas Western Narrow Gauge Railroad arrived in 1878; Prairie View State Normal School, a state school to train black teachers, was established in 1879. In 1880 the first United States census to record the new county reported 9,024 people, including 5,830 African Americans,qv living in the area. The agricultural census for that year found 596 farms encompassing 103,369 acres. Waller County residents planted over 10,000 acres in cotton that year and had 10,500 cattle. Immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe, Ireland, and Italy arrived during the later nineteenth century, with Germans forming the largest immigrant group; Catholic and Lutheran churches grew with the arrival, especially, of German, Polish, and Czech immigrants into the early twentieth century. A Jewish synagogue, established in 1873, also increased religious diversity. Brookshire grew after 1893, when the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad built through the area from Houston. South Texas Baptist Collegeqv was established in the town of Waller in 1898, but did not survive the great storm that pushed through the area in 1900. The Narrow Gauge Railway closed in 1899. By 1900 the county's population had increased to 14,246, including 7,874 blacks. The agricultural census reported 2,000 farms that year, and cotton production had spread to over 24,000 acres; another 18,300 acres were planted in corn, and 16,000 cattle were reported that year. The county's black majority population regularly delivered Republican victories in local, state, and national elections during much of the late nineteenth century, but in the 1880s a White Man's Party was organized to reduce black political participation, and some elections were marked by violence. As a result, the county's Republican vote dropped by 50 percent between 1896 and 1900; although 1,493 Republican votes were cast in the Presidential election of 1896, in 1900 the Republican ticket received only 760 votes. The 1903 state white primaryqv law all but eliminated blacks as a political power in the county, and in the Presidential election of 1912, only 144 Republican ballots were cast.
Cotton production continued to expand in the first decade of the twentieth century but then began to decline. More than 30,000 acres were planted in cotton in 1910, but by 1920 only 23,000 acres were devoted to the fiber. Though cotton cultivation expanded again briefly in the early 1920s—to over 34,000 acres by 1924—it declined again later in the decade, and by 1930 only 24,000 acres were planted in the crop. By that time, a number of farmers had turned to truck farming. The county's black population declined sharply during this period. By 1930 only 4,952 blacks were living there. Overall, the population dropped to 12,138 by 1910, to 10,292 by 1920, and to 10,014 by 1930. Cotton farming in the area continued to decline during the Great Depressionqv of the 1930s, due to federal crop restrictions, low prices, and other problems. A number of cotton gins closed during the 1930s, and by 1940, 14,000 acres were planted in cotton. Cropland harvested declined from 58,000 acres in 1930 to only 47,000 acres in 1940. The discovery of petroleum in the county in 1934 helped to diversify the area's economy during and after the depression, but production remained fairly limited. Oil production rose from 80,000 barrels in 1938 to more than 385,000 barrels in 1944 and to almost 591,000 barrels in 1948. By 1960 production had dropped to just under 332,000 barrels; about 217,000 barrels were produced in 1974, and under 134,000 barrels in 1982. In 1990 just under 199,000 barrels of crude were produced; by January 1, 1991, almost 19,426,000 barrels had been produced in the county since 1934. As cotton cultivation continued to decline after World War IIqv many small communities lost population. Farming declined relative to ranching after the 1950s, and by the 1980s irrigated rice had replaced cotton as the area's important crop; the county's last cotton gin closed in 1976. Meanwhile, truck farming and egg production became increasingly important, while watermelon growing declined. After 1960 Waller County's population grew rapidly, as more people moved into the area to commute to jobs in Houston. The United States Census counted 12,071 people in the county in 1960, and 14,285 in 1970; in 1973 the federal Office of Management and Budget began to include Waller County in the Houston Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. By 1980 almost half of the county's residents lived in urban areas, and the population had increased to 19,798. In the 1980s the county had only ten manufacturing firms, generally specializing in metal fabrication and drilling equipment and supplies, and three banks. Most nonagricultural workers were employed in oil and gas extraction, service industries, and construction. In 1982 about 81 percent of the land was in farms and ranches; about 33 percent of the farmland was cultivated, and about 23 percent was irrigated. Major crops included soybeans, corn, hay, and rice; watermelons, peaches, and pecans were also produced. That year about 53 percent of the county's agricultural income was derived from livestock, particularly cattle, sheep, and hogs. Forest products are also important to the local economy, and in 1981 over 1,921,000 cubic feet of pine was harvested. In 1982 almost 139,265,000,000 cubic feet of gas-well gas and 134,000 barrels of petroleum were produced in the area. Tourismqv also contributed to the area's economy. Two weekly newspapers, the Brookshire Banner and the Hempstead News Citizen, were published. The town of Prairie View experienced particularly rapid growth as Prairie View A&M's enrollment expanded, and by 1990 it was the largest population center in the county. The school's growth has also shaped the social and political development of the county. In the 1960s Prairie View students boycotted Hempstead businesses to force integration. Black voters became a more potent political force in 1976, after students at Prairie View A&M successfully challenged obstacles to their local voting registration. In national elections a majority of the voters of Waller County supported the Democratic candidates in every presidential election from 1900 to 1948. However, the county swung to Republicans in 1952, 1956, and 1960. The county's voters then supported the Democratic candidates in most presidential elections between 1964 and 1992, except in 1972 and 1984. By 1990 there were 23,390 people living in Waller County. Major communities in the county that year included Hempstead (1990 population: 3,551), Brookshire (2,922), Prairie View (4,004), Katy (843 in Waller County), Waller (1,323 in Waller County), Pine Island (571), and Pattison (327). Hempstead hosts a watermelon festival in July, and the Waller County Festival is held in October.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Carrie B. Coss, Liendo Plantation (Hempstead, Texas: Waller County Historical Commission, 1977). William L. Richter, The Army in Texas during Reconstruction, 1865-1870 (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1987). William L. Richter, Overreached on All Sides (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1991). Waller County Historical Survey Committee, A History of Waller County, Texas (Waco: Texian Press, 1973).


WALLER, TEXAS. Waller is on U.S. Highway 290 forty miles northwest of Houston in eastern Waller and northwestern Harris counties. K. H. Faulkner filed a plat on January 11, 1884, to establish the town, which was named for Edwin Waller.qv Within the first month of the town's existence a post office was set up, and a short time later "Uncle Doc" Sanders opened Waller's first general store. The public school, organized in 1887, had eighty students at the end of its first year of operation. The town boundaries were extended in 1889, when Waller was actually laid out. Eight years later it had an estimated population of 500, an established newspaper, and a bank. Farmers raised cotton, corn, and small fruits and berries. The South Texas Baptist College was established in 1898 in Waller by the South Texas Baptist Conference. The Galveston hurricane of 1900qv badly damaged many buildings, including the college, which was closed and never rebuilt. The town's business district grew in the first part of the twentieth century. Telephone service was installed in 1912, and the Guaranty Bond State Bank opened in 1915. Around 1918 "God's Mercy Store," a unique general store, began operation. Goods were marked at cost, and customers paid cost plus whatever profit percentage they felt was appropriate. Owner A. D. Purvis claimed that the store was established "by the spirit of Christ which is Love, Mercy, and Self denial." The store showed a tidy profit and was still operating in the late 1920s.

Although Waller was a stop on the Houston and Texas Central Railroad, there was no local transportation for visitors and salesmen arriving by rail until Ed and Bob Robertson opened a livery stable in the early part of the twentieth century. The brothers later bought the Ford Motor Company of Waller from a Mr. Llewellyn. The Boettcher Cotton Gin served area cotton growers. The Cooperative, formed by local farmers in the 1920s, functioned as both a social outlet and a marketing service. Within the co-op the local farmers operated a store, which sold produce locally, and a truck, which transported some of their goods to the Houston market and brought back loaves of bread. In 1947 the town petitioned for incorporation, and Jim Haney became the first mayor. A decrease in local cotton production during the 1950s resulted in the closing of the gin, but Waller continued to grow. In 1953 the town erected a building to house the fire station and city offices. A modern brick city hall was constructed in 1967. The population of Waller was 712 in 1950. Waller is part of the Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area, and its population growth reflects its value as commuter community. Crops grown commercially in Waller in the 1980s were peanuts, corn, watermelons, and other vegetables. Animal production included beef cattle, dairy cattle, longhorn cattle,qv and swine. In 1980 the town had eighty business institutions, a post office, several financial institutions, and the Skylake Airport. In recent years the town's population has increased from 1,493 in 1990 to 2,092 in 2000.


HEMPSTEAD, TEXAS. Hempstead, the county seat of Waller County, is on U.S. Highway 290 at its junction with State highways 6 and 159, fifty miles northwest of Houston. Dr. Richard Rodgers Peeblesqv and James W. McDade, founders of Hempstead, organized the Hempstead Town Company on December 29, 1856, to sell lots in the new town at the terminus of the projected Houston and Texas Central Railway. The doctor named the town for his brother-in-law, Dr. G. S. B. Hempstead of Portsmouth, Ohio. Peebles and his wife, Mary Ann Groce Peebles, contributed 2,000 acres from the Jared E. Groce, Jr., estate for the townsite, which Mary Ann Peebles helped lay out. The Houston and Texas Central was extended to Hempstead on June 29, 1858, and the town became a distribution center between the Texas interior and the Gulf Coast. Hempstead incorporated on November 10, 1858, and its importance as a transportation center increased with construction of the Washington County Railroad from Hempstead to Brenham. A post office was established in 1857. During the Civil Warqv the town served as a Confederate supply and manufacturing center. Hempstead was the site of a Confederate military hospital; three Confederate camps were located in its vicinity. Despite occupation of the town by federal troops during Reconstructionqv and recurring yellow fever epidemics, Hempstead prospered after the Civil War. Availability of transportation facilities and the surrounding area's large cotton production facilitated growth of textile manufacturing and cotton processing industries. Merchandising and processing grew rapidly between 1867 and the 1880s. The town prospered as a transportation center and became Waller county seat in May 1873. Hempstead's commercial, manufacturing, and processing sectors suffered large financial losses from fires between 1872 and 1876. Production of the town's cottonseed oil mill rose to a $90,000 gross value, second highest in the state, by 1880. Lack of banking facilities slowed the retail sector in the 1890s. In 1904 the population was 1,849. In 1906 the Citizen's State Bank was chartered.

In the twentieth century, produce shipping and truck hauling gradually replaced cotton. The Raccoon Bend oilfield developed near the town. Hempstead's location on the Southern Pacific Railroad and the convergence of state and federal highways helped sustain the town's economy when its population decreased from 2,500 in 1914 to 1,395 in 1959. Hempstead was the largest shipper of watermelons in the United States until the 1940s. The town had a school by the 1850s; classes were held in various buildings including the old jail. A freedmen's school operated from 1866 until 1870. The first public school opened in 1881. Hempstead became headquarters by 1955 of a school district including most of Waller County. The Central Texas Teachers Association began summer normals at Hempstead in 1890.

Violent settlement of disputes, often fueled by political and social disagreements involving the Ku Klux Klan,qv Radical Republicans, Greenbackers, Populists, and prohibitionists (see GREENBACK PARTY, PEOPLE'S PARTY, and PROHIBITION), brought Hempstead the nickname "Six-Shooter Junction" through the early twentieth century. Radical Republicans held a state convention at Hempstead in May 1875 and a "black and tan" convention in June 1875. Hempstead blacks were politically active before disenfranchisement. They established Methodist and Baptist churches by 1891 and a Lone Star Masonic lodge in 1893. The Grangeqv established a store in the town in 1874. Hempstead's relatively large Jewish community provided a significant stimulus to the town's economy from its founding through the early twentieth century. One of the earliest synagogues in Texas outside of larger population centers was established at Hempstead in the 1870s. Presbyterian, Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, and Episcopalian churches were constructed there around the time of the Civil War. The first of many short-lived newspapers, the Hempstead Courier, began publication in June 1859. In 1991 Hempstead had a weekly newspaper, the Waller County News-Citizen, which was first published as the Hempstead Weekly News in October 1891.

The town was disincorporated on February 13, 1899, and reincorporated on June 10, 1935. The town elected its first black mayor, LeRoy Singleton, in 1984. Blacks at the time made up approximately 50 percent of Hempstead's population. White residents have been predominantly Anglo throughout Hempstead's history, with significant minorities of German, Italian, and Polish descent. Hempstead resident Lillie E. Drennanqv was the first woman to obtain a truck driver's license in Texas. In 1966 Hempstead had 1,505 residents; the population reached 3,782 by 1988. Proximity to Houston accounts for much of the town's prosperity. The largest employers in 1990 were auto sales, government, and educational institutions. Hempstead has Texas historical markers for Capt. Alfred H. Wyly'sqv grave in Hempstead Cemetery and the courthouse grounds. The Waller County Fair is held in Hempstead in September. In 1990 Hempstead had a population of 3,551. In 2000 the population was 4,691.

PATTISON, TEXAS. Pattison is near the junction of Farm roads 1458 and 359, thirty miles west of Houston in southern Waller County. It was named for James Tarrant Pattison, who purchased a large tract of William Heady's Mexican land grant in 1839 and built his plantation house on a hill. Pattison's plantation was a stage stop at the intersection of the Atascosito Roadqv and the San Felipe Trail and included a gin, a gristmill, a sawmill, and a race track for the local gentry's favorite sport. According to Pattison family lore, the name of the town was the result of a horse race: Pattison and a rival plantation owner matched their favorite horses for the winner's privilege of naming the proposed town after himself. The George Parker Church, established in 1854 and named for its first minister, was also located in the vicinity of the present town. The town was organized in 1877, when three of Pattison's children granted the Texas Western Narrow Gauge Railroad a right-of-way through their property and donated additional land for a turntable and townsite. The preexisting community of Pine Grove, centered around Edwin Waller'sqv general store and post office and already a supply point for the surrounding rich agricultural area by 1873, soon moved to the railroad terminus on the Pattison plantation. The new post office was first called Patterson's Station (1879), then Patterson (1883). The name of the railway stop, however, was always Pattison, and the post office finally took that name in 1916. The railroad, which primarily shipped cotton to Houston, opened for traffic in August 1878, and the town flourished. German, Jewish, and Armenian entrepreneurs contributed to the town's development. By 1883 a population of 250 made Pattison the second largest community in Waller County. Thirteen years later the town had five cotton gins, a steam gristmill, seven general stores, two doctors, and a population of 500. Germans,qv the predominant immigrant group, founded the German Methodist Church in 1875 and Christ Lutheran Church in 1890. Anglo-Americans organized Pattison Methodist Church in the early 1880s. Itinerant black ministers held frequent camp meetings at Pattison, where Mount Calvary Baptist Church was founded in 1889. The town's first public school opened in 1881, and by 1892 Pattison was headquarters for a school district that included Pattison Negro School.

The railroad ceased operation in 1899, and nearby Brookshire on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas line replaced Pattison as southern Waller County's distribution center. The Galveston hurricane of 1900qv destroyed Pattison's school, Methodist church, and many businesses; a downtown fire in the same year hastened business relocation to Brookshire. By 1925 the population in Pattison had decreased to 100, but a strong sense of community, strong churches, and good farmland helped citizens rebuild. Electricity came in 1930, when Peter Donigan paid Houston Light and Power to run a line to his cotton gin, and in 1934 the community established a high school. Pattison had a population estimated at 250 in 1941 and 316 in 1968. The town was incorporated on November 16, 1972. Waller County's last operating cotton gin, at Pattison, closed in 1976. In 1988 the town retained its post office, a justice of the peace, a state health clinic, a school, four churches, and two cemeteries. The town's population in the late 1980s was just under 450. In 1990 it was 327. By 2000 the population was 447.

FIELDS STORE, TEXAS. Fields (Field's) Store is at the junction of Farm roads 1488 and 362, ten miles northeast of Hempstead in northeast Waller County. It existed as early as 1872 and received its name from Andrew Field and his son Druey Holland Field, the first of several Field family members to operate a general store in the area. By 1874 the community had a post office called Field's Store operated by Isaac Newton Jones, Druey's son-in-law. In 1895 the post office dropped the apostrophe from the name. Thirty residents lived in the community during the 1880s; in the next decade the town had a population of 150, three general stores, at least one church, and a physician. In 1905 Fields Store School enrolled 179 students who were instructed by four teachers. A local Masonic lodge existed during the same period, and by 1907 a Woodman of the World chapter had received its charter. A cotton gin also served local farmers.

Fields Store declined when the neighboring communities of Myrtle Grove and Joseph developed gins and opened post offices. The Fields Store post office closed in 1909, and most residents began receiving mail from Waller. During the 1930s sixty-nine students attended primary school at Fields Store; high school students rode the bus to Waller. In 1953 the Fields Store school was consolidated with the Waller schools, where area children still attended school in 1990. The old Fields Store school building, completed in 1923, served as the Fields Store Community House in 1990. Pleasant Hill Masonic Lodge No. 380 still met at the meeting hall in Fields Store, and an active cemetery association continued to raise money from July 4 picnics and an annual rodeo. The picnics served as community reunions. New Hope United Methodist Church continued to hold services in 1973. The Texas Historical Commissionqv has placed markers at the site of the old store and at the cemetery.

JOSEPH, TEXAS. Joseph was ten miles northeast of Hempstead and six miles north of Waller in Waller County. It was named for Joseph Hard, one of the early citizens of the area, and probably established sometime around 1900. A post office served local farmers from 1905 to 1930. William Bradbury opened the first post office and operated a general store. He also built a steam cotton gin that burned around 1913 but was rebuilt the following year. The Joseph Christian Church used a boiler tank in the gin yard as a baptistery. During its formative years Joseph also had a gristmill operated by Bradbury, a blacksmith shop, a tanyard, a shoe repair shop, and a barbershop. With a declining farm population in the area, all of the community's businesses except the general store had closed before 1930, when the post office also closed. The general store remained open until March 1936. The population of the community never officially exceeded the twenty-five residents reported in 1947. In 1990 Joseph remained on county maps, which show only a cemetery at the site.

GLADISH, TEXAS. Gladish was once a thriving community on what is now Farm Road 1736 eight miles northeast of Hempstead in northern Waller County. It was named for Capt. Richard Allen Gladish, a Confederate soldier who settled in the area in 1873, the year the county was formed. Dick Gladish bought 300 acres of land in the Samuel Hardin survey and built a steam-powered cotton gin, which had a substantial clientele because of the influx of new farmers when the county was formed. He also served as county tax assessor intermittently from 1878 to 1895. Members of the Gladish family operated not only the gin, but a gristmill and a general store as well. In 1885 a post office was established in the general store, with William B. Tompkins as postmaster. When a fire destroyed the store building, the post office and store were moved to the Gladish home. At one time the community had a brickyard, a racetrack, and accommodations for cockfighting. In 1890 it reported twenty-five residents, and by 1896, fifty. The Gladish school was one of fifty-two community schools established in Waller County between 1873 and 1894. By 1905 separate schools at Gladish enrolled thirty-six white and forty-eight black students. The Gladish post office closed in 1906, after the advent of rural free delivery. Around 1914 Dick Gladish closed his gin and moved with his family to Houston, where he died in 1918. Other families also moved out of the county or settled in nearby Hempstead. By 1937 the schools of the Gladish district had been absorbed into the Waller Independent School District. The community is not shown on the 1941 county highway map, though Gladish continued to be a voting precinct until 1966. By then, however, the former townsite was indistinguishable from the rest of the countryside.

CEDAR CREEK, TEXAS (Waller County). Cedar Creek is near the intersection of State Highway 6 and Farm Road 2979, seven miles north of Hempstead in northern Waller County. Presumably named for the creek nearby, Cedar Creek existed by the middle of the 1880s when Henry Kloecker, a German immigrant, opened a cotton gin for local farmers. The gin remained in the Kloecker family until about 1902 or 1903, when a resident of Navasota in neighboring Grimes County purchased it. A school for local children had opened by 1892; in 1906 thirty-seven children attended classes, but the school had apparently closed by the 1930s. A cemetery which may have begun during the Civil Warqv era lies at the northern edge of the community. A small number of citizens resided at Cedar Creek in 1990, and St. Luke Church was in the vicinity.

SHILOH, TEXAS (Waller County). Shiloh, near Ponds Creek, is a widely dispersed community on Farm Road 1098 about 1½ miles north of Prairie View and five miles northeast of Hempstead in Waller County. The community developed around the Shiloh Baptist Church, which began in September 1871 and was still in use in the 1980s. The original congregation met at neighboring Kirby Chapel until Thomas Armer, Sr., provided land for a building in 1881. In 1905 fifty-seven white and twenty-nine black students attended separate schools in the community; by 1930 the district at Waller, about five miles to the southwest, had absorbed several smaller districts, including the one at Shiloh. In the 1980s Shiloh included the church, scattered homes, and a cemetery that dated to the 1880s. A Texas Historical Commissionqv marker had been placed at the church.

CLEMONS, TEXAS. Clemons (Clemens, Clemons Switch) is a rural community of scattered dwellings on the east side of Irons Creek near Farm Road 1458 seven miles northwest of Brookshire in southern Waller County. A switch on the Texas Western Narrow Gauge railroad was at the site. The community is named for an early settler, Martin Key Clemons, who operated a general store that also housed a post office from 1885 to 1888. A Clemons church existed as early as 1883 and a school by 1892. Clemons was a home of Edwin A. Waller,qv for whom Waller County is named.

Competition from neighboring Pattison, which had a railroad depot and a turntable, slowed Clemons's growth. The railroad ceased operations in 1899. A school for black children operated at Clemons in the 1930s. During the 1960s the community had two churches, Wades Chapel and Wesley Chapel, as well as five cemeteries. In 1990 a few homes remained in the community, and children attended classes in the Royal Independent School District in Brookshire.

HEGAR, TEXAS. Hegar, also known as Springer, is six miles northeast of Waller in eastern Waller County 1½ miles west of the Montgomery and Harris county lines. Hegar existed by at least 1887, when Oscar George Hegar settled on land there that his father, German immigrant Otto Hegar, had purchased as early as 1847. A post office, managed by Oscar Hegar in his general store, opened at the community in 1899. Most of the local residents apparently farmed or raised livestock. Sometime before 1891 area citizens built north of Hegar a school, which they named in honor of Enoch McPherson, the first teacher in the community. The McPherson school served children from other communities as well as Hegar; after a series of school consolidations, local students attended classes within the Waller Independent School District. Many of Hegar's inhabitants went to services at the nearby Macedonia Methodist Church, which started in 1892; the church has a state historical marker. The Hegar post office closed in 1925. During the 1920s and 1930s the community reported a population of twenty. The site where the store and post office stood served as a weekend camp in 1977, and a few homes were still in the area in the 1980s.

KIRBY CHAPEL, TEXAS. Kirby Chapel is a community three miles north of Prairie View and six miles northeast of Hempstead in northern Waller County. It may have begun as early as 1858, when Jared Kirby and his wife Helen Marr Kirbyqv held worship meetings in their home. The Kirbys later gave land to the community for a nondenominational church, school, and cemetery. The church eventually became a Methodist institution. The school probably conducted its classes in the church building until 1893, when the Kirby Chapel School merged with the neighboring Pond Creek School to form the Union school district. In 1930 the Union district was consolidated with the Waller Independent School District. Though by 1939 the church had stopped holding services, its building stood until 1969. In 1990 a cemetery and a few houses were still located at Kirby Chapel.

SUNNY SIDE, TEXAS (Waller County). Sunny Side (Sunnyside) is near Irons Creek and two miles south of Farm Road 529 some twenty miles southeast of Hempstead and ten miles northwest of Brookshire in Waller County. It was settled in 1866, and a post office opened there in 1877. Early resident James Rainwater reportedly suggested the town name because he believed the sun would always shine on the post office site on the prairie land above the adjoining bottomland. By 1884 Sunny Side had four steam gristmills and cotton gins and thirty-five residents. Two general stores (one of which housed the post office), a blacksmith shop, and a physician served the community in 1892, when forty people lived there. The population reached a reported high of 178 in 1904. During the 1920s the Mount Zion Christian Methodist Church (a black congregation that probably existed by 1878), and the Harper Chapel United Methodist Church (originally founded in San Felipe in neighboring Austin County in 1881), apparently moved to Sunny Side. In 1905 the community had a school for 294 black children and another for thirty-nine white children. By the 1930s the schools were in the Monaville Independent School District, which became part of the Hempstead Independent School District in 1953. The population of Sunny Side numbered around 100 in the 1930s, when two cotton gins operated there. From the late 1940s through the mid-1960s the population was estimated at twenty, but from 1968 through 1990 it was reported as 120, where it remained in 2000. The cotton gin apparently closed long before the post office ceased operations in 1969. By 1977 the building that housed the post office, grocery store, and service station stood unoccupied.

 

 

“Texas is a state of mind. Texas is an obsession. Above all, Texas is a nation in every sense of the word. --John Steinbeck, author Texas has a colorful history. I'm about to enter Texas -- my spirits are good and my heart is straight. -- Sam Houston, 1832 I shall never surrender or retreat. -- William Barrett Travis, the Alamo, 1836 Like most passionate nations, Texas has its own history based on, but not limited by, facts-- John Steinbeck, Travels With Charlie, 1962 Texas can make it without the United States, but the United States cannot make it without Texas! -- Sam Houston, President of the Republic of Texas is the land . . . It is impossible to exaggerate the pleasant character, the beauty, and the fertility of the province of Tejas.”-- Father Antonio Olivares, 1716 I must say as to what I have seen of Texas , it is the garden spot of the world, the best land and the best prospects for health I ever saw.-- Davy Crockett “Texas is too big a state to take in one gulp. -- Texas Monthly Guidebook . . And the people who live there. I think Texans have more fun than the rest of the world. -- Broadway choreographer and Wichita Falls native-- Tommy Tune Nor is it the habit of Texans to look back. We have tradition of looking forward and not looking back to see where we have been or who is following us.-- President Lyndon Johnson What Texans can dream, Texans can do.-- President: George Walker Bush I must say as to what I have seen of Texas it is the garden spot of the world. The best land and the best prospects for health I ever saw, and I do believe it is a fortune to any man to come here. There is a world of country here to settle. - Davy Crockett, Alamo defender, 1836., I done drew the line. Just like the Alamo. You're either on one side of the line or the other. I don't want to ever leave Texas again! - Bum Phillips The Clinton administration launched an attack on people in Texas because those people were religious nuts with guns. Hell, religious nuts with guns founded this country! Who does Bill Clinton think stepped ashore on Plymouth Rock? -P. J. O'Rourke. “Texas does not, like any other region, simply have indigenous dishes. It proclaims them. It congratulates you, on your arrival, at having escaped from the slop pails of the other 49 states. - Alistair Cooke of the BBC on Texas cuisine in The Americans. You’ve got to smell it, and get your fingers burned, and shed a few tears over it, and everything else to get it right. That’s the way I look at it. - CB Radio. Stubblefield famed Texas barbeque master and music lover-promoter on barbeque and life. I have said that Texas is a state of mind, but I think it is more than that. It is a mystique closely approximating a religion. And these true to the extent that people either passionately loves Texas or passionately hate it and, as in other religions, few people dare to inspect it for fear of losing their bearings in mystery or paradox. But I think there will be little quarrel with my feeling that Texas is one thing. For all its enormous range of space, climate, and physical appearance, and for all the internal squabbles, contentions, and strivings, Texas has a tight cohesiveness perhaps stronger than any other section of America. Rich, poor, Panhandle, Gulf, city, country, Texas is the obsession, the proper study and the passionate possession of all Texans. -John Steinbeck, 1962 Texas will again lift its head and stand among the nations. It ought to do so, for no country upon the globe can compare with it in natural advantages. - Sam Houston, War Hero, General, Indian Friend and President of the Republic of Texas. A politician is a fellow who will lay down your life for his country. -Texas Guinean, Waco born Broadway/Hollywood starlet and famous speakeasy owner of the 1920's. All new states are invested, more or less, by a class of noisy, second-rate men who are always in favor of rash and extreme measures; But Texas was absolutely overrun by such men. - Sam Houston, President of the Republic of Texas and hero of the revolution. “Texas history is a varied, tempestuous, and vast as the state itself. Texas yesterday is unbelievable, but no more incredible than Texas today. Today's Texas is exhilarating, exasperating, violent, charming, horrible, delightful, and alive. - Edna Berber, author, 1955. They say that Virginia is the mother of Texas. We never knew who the father was, but we kinda suspected Tennessee. - Tex Ritter, country music and movie star on the heritage of his home state. In Texas, a political speech is sometimes referred to as a longhorn: one that makes two good points, but they are a long way apart and have a lot of bull in between. - Observation recorded by Herring and Richter, Don’t Throw Feathers at Chickens If a man’s from Texas, he’ll tell you. If he’s not, why embarrass him by asking? - Travel writer John Gunther, The Best of Texas Oil rich boys . . . had a nice, sweet smile but when you finished meeting with them your socks were missing and you hadn’t even noticed they’d taken your boots. - Actor (and native Texan) Larry Hagman Van Horn [Texas] is so healthy, we had to shoot a man to start a cemetery. - Bill Goynes, who coined this civic slogan for the town of Van Horn, then was gunned down during an argument and was the first man buried in the Van Horn cemetery in 1892 You’re not a real Texan till you’ve been kicked out of every decent state in America. - Joe Bob Briggs I'd rather be a fencepost in Texas, than the king of Tennessee. - Chris Wall Texas Singer-Songwriter-Austin A born Texan has instilled in his system a mind-set of no retreat or no surrender. I wish everyone the world over had the dominating spirit that motivates Texans. - Former Texas Speaker of the House Billy Clayton, I’ve traveled all over the world, but I don’t think there is any place better than Texas. - Oil well firefighter Red Adair Like most passionate nations, Texas has its own history based on, but not limited by, facts - John Steinbeck, Travels With Charlie, 1962 I am forced to conclude that God made Texas on his day off, for pure entertainment, just to prove that all that diversity could be crammed into one section of earth by a really top hand - Author Mary Lasswell I thought I knew Texas pretty well, but I had no notion of it's size until I campaigned it - Former Governor Ann Richard Texas is neither southern nor western. Texas is Texas - Senator William Blakely If you've ever driven across Texas, you know how different one area of the state can be from another. Take El Paso. It looks as much like Dallas as I look like Jack Nicolas - Pro Golfer Lee Trevino I think Texans have more fun than the rest of the world - Choreographer Tommy Tune I love Texas because Texas is future-oriented, because Texans think anything is possible. Texans think big - Senator Phil Gram Houston is, without a doubt, the weirdest, most entertaining city in Texas , consisting as it does of subtropical forest, life in the fast lane, a layer of oil, cowboys and spacemen - Texas Tourism Guide I feel safer on a racetrack than I do on Houston 's freeways - Car racing legend E. G.. Foyt Govern wisely, and as little as possible – Sam Houston My favorite Aggie joke? I'm sorry I don't understand the question - Singer Lyle Lovett - Texas A&M class of 1979 Texas is a state of mind. Texas is an obsession. Above all, Texas is a nation in every sense of the word - Author John Steinbeck FIELDS STORE, TEXAS. Fields (Field's) Store is at the junction of Farm roads 1488 and 362, ten miles northeast of Hempstead in northeast Waller County. It existed as early as 1872 and received its name from Andrew Field and his son Druey Holland Field, the first of several Field family members to operate a general store in the area. By 1874 the community had a post office called Field's Store operated by Isaac Newton Jones, Druey's son-in-law. In 1895 the post office dropped the apostrophe from the name. Thirty residents lived in the community during the 1880s; in the next decade the town had a population of 150, three general stores, at least one church, and a physician. In 1905 Fields Store School enrolled 179 students who were instructed by four teachers. A local Masonic lodge existed during the same period, and by 1907 a Woodman of the World chapter had received its charter. A cotton gin also served local farmers. Fields Store declined when the neighboring communities of Myrtle Grove and Joseph developed gins and opened post offices. The Fields Store post office closed in 1909, and most residents began receiving mail from Waller. During the 1930s sixty-nine students attended primary school at Fields Store; high school students rode the bus to Waller. In 1953 the Fields Store School was consolidated with the Waller schools, where area children still attended school in 1990. The old Fields Store school building, completed in 1923, served as the Fields Store Community House in 1990. Pleasant Hill Masonic Lodge No. 380 still met at the meeting hall in Fields Store, and an active cemetery association continued to raise money from July 4 picnics and an annual rodeo. The picnics served as community reunions. New Hope United Methodist Church continued to hold services in 1973. The Texas Historical Commission has placed markers at the site of the old store and at the cemetery. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mildred W. Abshier, et al., Former Post Offices of Waller County (Hempstead, Texas: Waller County Historical Society, 1977). James Henry Goatee, Administrative Survey of the Public Schools of Waller County, Texas (M.Ed. thesis, University of Texas, 1937). Waller County Historical Survey Committee, a History of Waller County, Texas (Waco: Texian, 1973). WALLER, TEXAS. Waller is on U.S. Highway 290 forty miles northwest of Houston in eastern Waller and northwestern Harris counties. K. H. Faulkner filed a plat on January 11, 1884, to establish the town, which was named for Edwin Waller Within the first month of the town's existence a post office was set up, and a short time later Uncle Doc Sanders opened Waller's first general store. The public school, organized in 1887, had eighty students at the end of its first year of operation. The town boundaries were extended in 1889, when Waller was actually laid out. Eight years later it had an estimated population of 500, an established newspaper, and a bank. Farmers raised cotton, corn, and small fruits and berries. The South Texas Baptist College was established in 1898 in Waller by the South Texas Baptist Conference. The Galveston hurricane of 1900qv badly damaged many buildings, including the college, which was closed and never rebuilt. The town's business district grew in the first part of the twentieth century. Telephone service was installed in 1912, and the Guaranty Bond State Bank opened in 1915. Around 1918 God's Mercy Store, a unique general store, began operation. Goods were marked at cost, and customers paid cost plus whatever profit percentage they felt was appropriate. Owner A. D. Purvis claimed that the store was established by the spirit of Christ which is Love, Mercy, and Self denial. The store showed a tidy profit and was still operating in the late 1920s. Although Waller was a stop on the Houston and Texas Central Railroad, there was no local transportation for visitors and salesmen arriving by rail until Ed and Bob Robertson opened a livery stable in the early part of the twentieth century. The brothers later bought the Ford Motor Company of Waller from a Mr. Llewellyn. The Boettcher Cotton Gin served area cotton growers. The Cooperative, formed by local farmers in the 1920s, functioned as both a social outlet and a marketing service. Within the co-op the local farmers operated a store, which sold produce locally, and a truck, which transported some of their goods to the Houston market and brought back loaves of bread. In 1947 the town petitioned for incorporation, and Jim Haney became the first mayor. A decrease in local cotton production during the 1950s resulted in the closing of the gin, but Waller continued to grow. In 1953 the town erected a building to house the fire station and city offices. A modern brick city hall was constructed in 1967. The population of Waller was 712 in 1950. Waller is part of the Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area, and its population growth reflects its value as commuter community. Crops grown

 

 commercially in Waller in the 1980s were peanuts, corn, watermelons, and other vegetables. Animal production included beef cattle, dairy cattle, longhorn cattle, and swine. In 1980 the town had eighty business institutions, a post office, several financial institutions, and the Sky lake Airport. In recent years the town's population has increased from 1,493 in 1990 to 2,092 in 2000. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Mildred W. Abshier, ed., Waller County Whatnots (Hempstead, Texas: Waller County Historical Commission and Waller County Historical Society, 1986). Waller County Historical Commission, Cotton Gins of Waller County (Brenham, Texas, 1981). Waller County Historical Survey Committee, a History of Waller County, Texas (Waco: Texian, 1973). WPA Writers' Program, Texas: A Guide (New York: Hastings House, 1940; rev. ed. 1969). FYI he University of Texas - MD ANDERSON CANCER CENTERMaking Cancer HistorySAFE SUN STATSNearly one million cases of skin cancer was diagnosed in 1998.In southern states, such as Texas, approximately 30 percent of the population will develop skin cancer at some point in their life. In northern states, only 15 percent will. 40 to 50 percent of Americans who live to age 65 will have skin cancer at least once. As much as 80 percent of a person's lifetime sun exposure occurs before age 18. Research shows that regular use of a sunscreen of at least SPF 15 during the first 18 years of life could reduce the risk of skin cancer by 78 percent. Throughout the summer months, sun exposure can be reduced by up to 60 percent simply by avoiding the sun in the mid-afternoon.People at highest risk of developing skin cancer have red or blond hair, blue or light-colored eyes, and fair skin that tends to freckle, rather than tan.Sunscreen should be applied 30 minutes before going outdoors and reapplied every 60 to 90 minutes. Through M.D. Anderson's Under Cover Skin Cancer Prevention Project, you can call toll free 1-(800) 322-5454 for a free skin cancer Skin Care Facts Our advanced proprietary formulas use pure and natural ingredients from the finest sources in the world. All SEA & SKI products are good for your skin. Each product is made with the finest ingredients. 100% pure aloe vera organically grown, hand-picked, and cold-compressed, the finest you can buy. Exotic ingredients from around the world include fine sea botanicals; sublime extracts from pure organic sources such as eucalyptus, sunflower, and fruit extracts; pro vitamins A through K, chamomile; and highly refined and expensive oils such as jojoba, almond, and carrot. Life will be enhanced through a greater understanding of final fantasy polyphonic wap and the Texas lottery commission through using cellular accessories and Nokia 9210 communicator research and development extensively and every day. Thought that Nokia 3210 phone covers or Texas lottery scratch off were good ideas, then try Iowa lottery results for greater results and satisfaction. How would you like to solve you t65 background pictures or sweet home Alabama rattle code problem, without getting involved with weather local and rendition v1000-e? Learn facts you should know about free send sums and defiantly mobile phone software, without risk. Though of trying super drug share prices or Nokia battery, our wisdom will shock you. Do you PC at home have lots of computer pick lotto numbers and free software for Nokia 7650 on it? My PC has loads of run-time error r6003 marijuana and my laptop has Nokia 3315 and sisal too specializing in Romantic Dressing Using Laces, Velvets and Suedes Dress the Way You Would Like to Feel! After 22 years of operating her own dress shops, Pat Dahnke has designed an artistic line of ladies ready to wear and accessories. Romantic Suedes and lace styles are created on her Blue Bonnet Country Ranch. A Texan by choice, Pat has carved out a niche. Her line of vintage dresses is the choice of entertainers, queen contestants, ladies returning to a high school reunion, and for those who like candlelight picnics. She has a true appreciation for nature and color. Her love for beautiful fabrics makes the pieces timeless, and her styles are easy fit. Have fun wearing her clothes.  after 22 years of operating her own dress shops, Pat Dahnke has designed an artistic line of ladies ready to wear and accessories.If you have questions, please feel free to fill out our questionnaire.After 22 years of operating her own dress shops, Pat Dahnke has designed an artistic line of ladies ready to wear and accessories. Romantic Suedes and lace styles are created on her Blue Bonnet Country Ranch. A Texan by choice, Pat has carved out a niche. Her line is the choice of entertainers, queen contestants, ladies returning to a high school reunion, and for those who like candlelight picnics. She has a true appreciation for nature and color. Her love for beautiful fabrics makes the pieces timeless.

 

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